Man is utilizing the animal merchandise since time immemorial. Honey is one such animal product utilized by mankind since histories. The varied qualities of honey have been talked about within the literature in addition to by many eminent employees. Honey is obtained from the tiny, teeny weeny honey bees. Bees train us the lesson of labor, work and work with cooperation. It’s fascinating to suppose that for just one pound of honey the bee travels about twice the space of earth’s circumference and pollinate twelve thousand flowers a day.
Honey bees belong to the category Insecta and order Hymenoptera. They’re scientifically termed as Apis. Honey bees are extremely organized social bugs with properly developed division of labour. They’re energetic all year long however in winter do little work. In spring season, they construct robust colony having honey wealthy combs that may be simply seen hanging down from the branches of timber, ceilings of homes and many others. they impart with one another by performing waggle dance as described by the eminent biologist Karl Von Frish.
Every honey bee colony bears forty to fifty thousand people encompassing three castes: Queen, drones and employees. The queen after fertilization lays each fertilized in addition to unfertilized eggs. The unfertilized eggs become drones and the fertilized egg develops right into a queen when ate up royal jelly and the larvae not ate up royal jelly become employees.
The Queen is a properly developed fertile feminine with immensely developed ovaries and is current in every hive in a single quantity. She is the mom in the actual sense and is guarded by a variety of attendants and her sole perform is to put eggs solely. It measures 15-20 mm in size and may be acknowledged by lengthy tapering stomach, brief legs and wings. She will not be capable of produce honey and wax. She bears an ovipositor for egg laying and lays 1,500 to 2,000 eggs per day. The queen mates solely as soon as in her life span and shops the sperms of drone in her spermatheca. The life span of the queen is about 5 years and he or she lays about 1,500,000 eggs. She feeds on royal jelly all through her life. When a queen turns into previous or she dies a brand new queen is given all of the obligations of the colony. A brand new queen is shaped when a employee is ate up royal jelly. A queen takes 18 days to develop from egg to grownup.
Staff are the smallest of the three castes of the colony and are literally the actual equipment for the correct functioning of the colony. In addition they develop from the fertilized egg laid by the queen within the employee cell. They take 21 days to develop from egg to grownup. their complete life span is about six weeks. The employees are sterile females that sacrifice their lives for the properly being of the colony. The outside and indoor duties are carried out by them solely and for this they’ve some specifically modified physique elements: lengthy proboscis for sucking nectar, robust wings for fanning, pollen basket for assortment of pollen, highly effective sting to defend the colony from the predators, wax glands for wax secretion. The bees that take care of the younger ones and the queen are termed as nursery bees, those that work for constructing and repairing of the comb are termed as builders and repairers. Honey storage and the ripening can also be executed by the employees.
The male members of the colony are termed as Drone of the King. They develop from the unfertilized eggs and take 24 days to become grownup from the eggs. They lack wax glands and sting however have properly developed reproductive organs. Their sole perform is to fertilize the queen and are sometimes seen begging the employees for the meals. they dwell in particular chambers referred to as drone cells. A drone dies after copulation.
The primary swarm is led by the previous queen and the second swarm is led by the seven days previous virgin queen which is adopted by a variety of drones is termed as marriage flight or nuptial flight. Just one male copulates with the queen and dies and drops to the bottom. The fertilized queen then returns to the colony and begins laying eggs. She lays one egg in every cell. The eggs are pinkish, elongated and are connected to the underside of the cell. The larvae after emergence are fed for 5 days by the employee bees after which the cell is sealed for pupation. After three weeks adults emerge out, within the type of employees and are despatched for outside duties. Just one larva develops into queen that’s ate up royal jelly. The drones develop from unfertilized eggs.
Honey is good in style and its coloration varies from white to black with variable scent. The nectar, pollen and cane sugar are blended by the saliva of the honey bees and endure enzymatic motion and is collected within the honey sac till it reaches the hive. Because the bee reaches the hive this compound is regurgitated within the hive and is named the honey and is now concentrated by a robust present of air by fast beating of the wings. Chemically honey is made up of levulose, dextrose, maltose, pigments, enzymes, ash and water. honey has each medicinal in addition to the meals worth.
Honey bees are additionally the great supply of bees wax. It’s yellowish gray in coloration, insoluble in water however fully soluble in alcohols and ethers. it’s pure secretion of employee bees poured out in skinny delicate scales and is a posh combination of hydrocarbons. It has an excellent business worth. Honey bees and honey each are of fine business worth. The bee retaining and rearing for business manufacturing is termed as apiculture. This follow has been developed in lots of international locations everywhere in the world.